Training For Vigilance: The Effect of Knowledge of Results Format and Dispositional Optimism and Pessimism on Performance and Stress


Szalma, J.L., Hancock, P.A., Dember, W.N., & Warm, J.S. (2005). Training for vigilance: The effect of KR format and dispositional optimism and pessimism on performance and stress. British Journal of Psychology97(1), 115-135.

This study investigated the impact of knowledge of results (KR) format on the performance and stress associated with a vigilance task. Also examined was the effect of the interaction of KR-format (Hit-KR, False Alarm-KR, Miss-KR, and a composite of all three formats) with dispositional optimismand pessimismon performance outcome and reported stress state. Hypotheses based upon a theory of feedback interventionwere tested. (KR regarding correct detections and the composite-KR (KR regarding correct detections, false alarms, and missed signals) enhanced perceptual sensitivity. However, False Alarm-KR and Miss-KR did not. Contrary to expectations based on the theory, performance was unrelated to the traits across all KR conditions. However, the effects of KR-format on self-reports of stress depended on the individual’s level of pessimism and optimism. In addition, KR format and personality affected the multiple dimensions of stress state in different ways.

Download Publication

Your web browser doesn’t have a PDF plugin. Please download publication from the link above