Vercruyssen, M., Siu, K., China, C., Masaki, K., Hoffman, E., Blanchette, P.L., & Hancock, P.A. (1998). Age and disease effects on estimates of vehicle time-to-arrival. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(9), P318.
Vehicle-pedestrian collisions are often caused by an inability of the pedestrians (and drivers) to correctly estimate the time-to-arrival (TTA) of an approaching objects.