Kozak, J.J., Hancock, P.A., Arthur, E., & Chrysler, S. (1993). Transfer of training from virtual reality. Ergonomics, 36(7), 777-784.
This experiment compared the value of real-world training, virtual reality training, and no training in the transfer of learning to the same task performed in real-world conditions. Results provide no evidence of transfer from a virtual reality training environment to a real-world task. There was no significant difference between the virtual reality training group and the group that received no training on the task. The group that received real-world training performed significantly better than both of the other two groups. The results question the utility of virtual training and suggest that in the present configuration, individuals learn performance characteristics specific only to the virtual reality context. Needed improvements to virtual reality for the purpose of enabling the transfer of training are indicated.
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