The Triples Rule

Hoffman, R., Hancock, P.A., Ford, K., & Hayes, P. (2002) The triples rule. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 17(3), 62-65.
(Reprinted In: R.R. Hoffman (Ed.). Collected essays on human-centered computing. (pp. 25-28), IEEE Computer Society: IEEE CS Press, 2012).

A fundamental stance taken in human-centered computing is that information-processing devices must be thought of in systems terms. At first blush, this seems self-evident. However, the notion has a long history, and not just in systems engineering.

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